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Viruses of cereals – which one to pay close attention
The variety of consequences of climate change, intensification of existing farming systems often contributes to the defeat of wheat and cereal crops from viral diseases. At present, there are over 20 viruses that can parasitize on cultivated cereals, including wheat
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The sector of molecular and serological types of tests testing center of fsbi "Rostov reference center of the Rosselkhoznadzor" has the ability to conduct research by ELISA for eleven non-quarantine infections:

the broken mosaic of barley (Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV))

mosaic rymovirus wheat (Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV))

the fire mosaic virus (Brome mosaik virus(BMV))

virus dwarfism of wheat (wheat dwarf virus(WDV))

weak mosaic virus of barley (Barley mild mosaic Bymovirus (BaMMV))

mosaic rymovirus fire (Brome Streak Mosaic Tritimovirus(BStV))

virus fusiform of striped mosaic wheat (wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Bymovirus (WSSMV))

the yellow dwarf virus of barley (Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV))

the yellow mosaic virus of barley (Barley Yellow Mosaic Bymovirus (BaYMV))

virus dwarf mosaic corn (Maiz Dwarf Mosaic Potyvirus (MDMV)

virus chlorotic mottle maize (Maize Chlorotic Mottle Machlovirus (MCMV)).

Common and occurring in the territory of the Rostov region and Krasnodar territory is a mosaic rymovirus wheat (Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV)).

The pathogen – Wheat streak mosaik virus, affecting mainly wheat, but also found on plants of barley, oats, maize, sorghum, rice, millet, annual and perennial cereal grasses.

The leaves appear light green lines or stripes running parallel to the leaf veins. Plants are stunted and do not give productive stems. The spots gradually increase, the leaves turn yellow and die. The spike is fully or partially sterile (partial or complete inability of plants to form seeds). In the case of "loading" of the spike, grain is formed hollow.

From plant to plant virus transmitted by mechanical damage, inoculation of the juice of diseased plants and the mites that transmit the infection within 30 min after the start of power supply to the affected plant.

The mites easily spread by wind and on the body of cereal aphids during their migration. The disease agent and its vectors are stored in the crops of winter crops on the germination of wild plants, weeds.

The development of the disease contribute to the violation of crop rotation and lack of observance of spatial isolation from fields of winter crops spring crops and grasses, late sowing of spring and early winter crops, presence of weed and vector control.

Thus, to prevent the spread of viral diseases is necessary to choose the optimal sowing time, to achieve the elimination of contact of the plant with carriers in the most vulnerable phase of plant development, as well as to identify infections in the early stages of development.

 

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Translated by service "Yandex.Translation"
Источники: АгроXXI
Tuesday, 28 September 2021
Monday, 27 September 2021
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